Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. This relates to Robert K Merton’s Theory (1966) ‘Institutionalised Means and Cultural Goals’ in that an individual from an impoverished background may commit crime as they cannot achieve their cultural goals through legitimate, law abiding ways, and so reject institutionalised means by rebellion instead. Poverty has been linked to juvenile delinquency but does poverty cause crime? 16% of the 700 teenagers studied admitted to having poor moral sense and self-control and were responsible in committing 60% of all the recorded crimes (The Independent, 2012). However, it has been proven that poverty doesn’t directly link to a child committing a crime. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines a delinquent act as “conduct that is out of accord with accepted behavior or the law” (Merriam-Webster 2006). (cited 07/12/17), Cynthia C. Harper and Sara S. McLanahan, 2004, “Father Absence and Youth Incarceration,” Journal of Research on Adolescence volume 14, University of California USA, 369-397. Emotional Support Dogs: 5 Reasons Why Owning One Rocks. (cited 16/10/17), United Nations. Baumrind, Diana (1971). The three most prominent effects are lower intellectual development, higher levels of illegitimate parenting in the teenage years, and higher levels of welfare dependency. However, children and adolescents are limited to the extent of choosing the environment they live in, which accounts for the greater influence of environmental factors in childhood behaviour, instead of genes. As to date 90% of people believe that poor parenting can result in youth criminality, with 38% of respondents believing that it is the main cause. Some researchers have criticized the correlations between parenting styles and juvenile delinquency. Furthermore, although this method helped my argument I found using secondary sources to be much more helpful. A meta-analysis of more than 100 studies examined the relationship between poor academic performance and delinquency and found that poor academic performance is related to the prevalence, onset, frequency, and seriousness of delinquency (Maguin and Loeber, 1996). Crimes can range from relatively minor infractions, such as truancy and petty theft, all the way to rape and murder. This therefore spirals into cases of peer pressure – often leading to crime. (cited 17/11/17), Sameroff A. 21(2): 185–204. 2004). (2006). This is widely due to developments in technology with the availability of mobiles and tracking applications they can monitor with. Dissertation et. Indulgent parenting essentially spoils children. To conclude that poor parenting is the main cause for youth criminality, we must first examine the extent to which others do so also. In the year ending 2016, there were 88,600 arrests of young people (aged 10-17) in England and Wales (UK Government, 2016). They also are more likely to commit serious violent crime and therefore become “versatile” criminals – those actively involved in a variety of crimes, for example, theft, drugs, and fraud (Clinical Psychology Review, 1990). Furthermore, it can be argued that people who do not reside in poverty are instead affected by crime, depending on the people they associate themselves with. Gardner followed this by stating: ‘Today’s parents have had to develop skills that are significantly different and arguably more complex than 25 years ago’. This can be exemplified by the case of James Bulger (aged 2) who was murdered by Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, (both 10 years of age) in 1993. Clearly, bonding between parent and child is critical in helping to protect against youth violence (Journal of Marriage and Family, 2005). He then went on to state; ‘I have had many (male) parents in asking about crime and how to keep their children out of it’. Poor parenting leads to early aggressiveness. You can view samples of our professional work here. This is hardly surprising as Glasgow remains the most deprived city and local authority area in Scotland as almost half (47.3%) of Glasgow’s residents – 283,000 people – reside in the 20% of most deprived areas in Scotland. (cited 14/09/17), Fagan. (2000). Researchers found that young people deemed as “low risk” but were from a poorer background had a higher likelihood of engaging in crime. (cited 1/11/17), Kruttschmitt, Candace. Eamonn et al. Furthermore, the blame of problem behaviour on poor parenting is also viewed as being outdated by some critics. Juvenile delinquency places a significant strain on society. ‘Is Poor Parenting the Main Cause for Youth Criminality?’, Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………… page 2, Research Methodology………………………………………………………………….…page 4, Chapter 1…………………………….………………………………………………….… page 6, Chapter 2…………………………….………………………………………………….… page 12, Chapter 3……………………………………………………………………………….…. This births poor peer relationships and leads those children to be with others who share similar behaviours. Santrock (2012) notes that conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency are closely linked. Negative peers, proximity to violence, low intelligence, delinquent peers, and certain genetic traits all play a role. But, a study by the University of Cambridge found that less than 4% of youths are responsible for nearly half of all youth crime committed. 4) Along with the increased probability of family poverty and heightened risk of delinquency, a father's absence is associated with a host of other social problems. "A therapist's blog about mental health matters. Hoeve, M., Blockland, A., et al. This in turn may lead to crime that can be due to jealously of their more affluent peer’s possessions or even be a desperate attempt to gain materials they simply need to get by. For many, a detention center provides meals, shelter, medical care, and protection from predators. Wright, Kevin N. and Wright, Karen E. (1994). Perhaps, there are also definite reasons as to why poor parenting may not be the lead cause for youth criminality. “Parental supervision, attachment to parents, and consistency of discipline are the most important protective factors” (9). While authoritarian and indulgent parenting styles ultimately prove harmful to a child’s upbringing, they do not correlate to delinquent behavior in the way that neglectful parenting does. How Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Zambia Radically Changed the Way I See Addiction, 6 Ridiculous Myths About Narcotics Anonymous, Anxiety And Addiction: Symptoms, Effects, and Treatment, The Wrong Epidemic: The Overuse of Prescription Drugs in America, How To Quit Smoking Weed: 7 Things You Can Do Right Now to Kick The Habit, Co-Occurring Nightmares: The Link Between Addiction and Depression, 7 Myths About Addiction You Need To Stop Believing, 7 Simple Things You Can Do To Support an Alcoholic During Stay-At-Home, 5 Key Facts About SMART Recovery: A Self-Help Treatment Approach For Addiction. Youth violence: do parents and families make a difference? The Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a study which has followed the lives of 4,300 children as they made the change from childhood to adulthood reported negative effects from formal engagement with the criminal justice system – the “labelling” effect. Juvenile delinquency have increased globally, this new phenomenon can be directly linked to poor parenting techniques. Such bad parenting causes poor self-esteem, poor self-control, and will likely promote truancy and delinquency during adolescence (Santrock, 2012). However, parents not only influence their children, but children also influence their parents (Crouter and Booth 2003; Granic 2000; Holden 1997). This relates to the impact of parents in an adolescent’s upbringing as previously discussed. It was estimated that there were 170 gangs in Glasgow, with 3,500 gang members aged as young as 11 in 2008. (cited 17/11/17), Santrock, John W. (2012). The Strengthening America’s Family Initiative is a program designed to give parents the skills they need to decrease risk factors associated with juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency is the participation by a minor child, usually between the ages of 10 and 17, in illegal behavior or activities. 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